Monday, January 13, 2020

Psychology’s Classical Theorist Essay

In the field of psychology, Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung, developed three distinct theories of personality that to this day, continue to be the foundations on which all modern psychological theories are built. All three of these remarkable men knew and worked with each other. When Adler and Jung praised Freud’s book on dream interpretation, they were invited to join Freud’s circle of peers, who met weekly at his home in Vienna, Austria (Engler, 2006). At these meetings they discussed new and groundbreaking aspects of psychopathology (Comer, 2008). Freud, Adler, and Jung are unequivocally the most influential figures in modern psychology (Comer, 2008). Freud’s concept of the id, the ego, and the superego, are the underlying factors that began all three schools of thought and that provide the foundations of modern psychology (Engler, 2006). Freud believed that the id had no contact with reality and worked on the pleasure principle and hedonistic wants, with no morality involved. The ego develops as children experience the demands and constraints of reality. It uses reasoning to make decisions. The superego is concerned with right and wrong, it is the moral compass, the conscience in each individual (Comer, 2008). Freud believed that people are unaware of the most important personality processes. Like an iceberg, only the small portion of the conscious mind is accessible and above the water. The preconscious, just out of reach, and the subconscious, deeply repressed, is below the water completely. These are the reason for most problems with behavior and the personality, according to Freud (Nystul, 2006). Freud also theorized that the personality was formed by early childhood experiences, called psychosexual stages (Engler, 2006). If a child’s basic needs are not being met during one of these stages, the child may become â€Å"fixated† or stuck in that stage. For example, if an adult smokes, he or she could be said to be â€Å"orally fixated.† According to Freud, infants at the oral stage use their mouths to explore their environment (Engler, 2006). Freud’s emphasis on sexuality is one of the main reasons why Adler and Jung disagreed with him. They thought that Freud put entirely too much emphasis  on the libido and sexual energy in children. Freud and Adler met every Wednesday for eleven years (Comer, 2008). In 1911, Alder, along with eight colleagues, broke away from Freud’s circle to form the school of â€Å"Individual Psychology† (Engler, 2006). Adler’s theory differed from Freud’s in that it focuses on the person as a â€Å"whole.† The Adlerian term, individual psychology, refers to the human being as indivisible, as opposed to Freud’s view of an individual being, internally divided (Engler, 2006). For Adler, each aspect of the personality points in the same direction (Nystul, 2006). Adler saw how humans connect with one another, with family, with friends, with community, and with society as a whole. He believed that this interconnectedness is essential for an individual to develop and to thrive (Comer, 2008). Each person develops uniquely, according to acquired experiences, both past and present. The process starts at infancy, as children compare themselves to older children and adults, they experience feelings of inferiority (Engler, 2006). This is a normal reaction to the awareness of not being able to do as one pleases. These feelings motivate people to strive towards usefulness and to become contributing members of the family, the group, and the society at large (Nystul, 2006). Carl Gustav Jung, long an admirer of Freud, met him in Vienna, Austria in 1907, after Jung praised Freud’s book, â€Å"The Interpretation of Dreams† (Comer, 2008). At this historical meeting they talked for 13 hours (Nystul, 2006). Freud thought that Jung, twenty years his junior, was to become his heir apparent. In 1910, Jung did become the first president of the International Psychoanalytic Association (Engler, 2006). However, in 1914, Jung broke away from Freud, primarily because he disagreed with Freud’s view of sexuality (Nystul, 2006). Using his own theories, he then began the school of â€Å"Analytical Psychology.†Jung’s theory of personality divides the psyche into three distinct parts: the ego, consisting of the conscious mind, the personal unconscious, which contains thoughts, memories, and experiences  that are not presently conscious, but can be, and the collective unconscious (Nystul, 2006). The collective unconscious could be described as a â€Å"psychic inheritance† (Comer, 2008). It could also be a type of reservoir of the human experience as a species. Yet, the individual is never conscious of its presence (Feist, 1985). Jung’s â€Å"Archetypes of the Personality† evolve from the collective unconscious. These are the persona and its shadow, the female anima and male animus, and the self. Jung felt that until balance could be found within these archetypes in each individual, the complete realization of the self could not be achieved (Comer, 2008). The son of a pastor, Jung had a great interest in spirituality and its effects on the personality. His studies and knowledge of eastern philosophy, yoga, and meditation have certainly had an impact on his theories and have contributed greatly to today’s holistic approach to overall health (Nystul, 2006). Jung’s theories and writings have had a major impact on contemporary thought in many areas such as art, music, and literature (Douglas, 2005). Jung also coined the term â€Å"synchronicity,† which can be defined as â€Å"meaningful coincidences† occurring in everyday life (Engler, 2006). Jung claimed that there exists a synchrony between the mind and the phenomenal world of perception in each individual. For example, thoughts of an old friend fill one’s mind in the evening. The next morning, that particular friend calls, or news about them is received, out of the blue. However, no physical evidence has been found to support this idea (Strogatz, 2004). Although Freud, Adler, and Jung had their unique theoretical differences, they also shared many commonalities. For instance, they all utilized hypnosis and dream interpretation as therapeutic tools to treat their patients (Comer, 2008). They also all agreed on the importance of early life experiences and the existence of unconscious processes (Nystul, 2006). In the field of psychology, Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung, developed three distinct theories of personality that to this day continue  to be the foundations on which all modern psychological theories are built. In their day, these three men were on the cutting edge of the newest science of western civilization. If not for Freud, Alder, and Jung psychology would not have evolved into the field that it is today. References Comer, Ronald, J. (2008). Fundamentals of abnormal psychology. (5th edition). New York, NY. Worth Publishers. Douglas, C. (2005). Current psychotherapies. (7th Edition). (pgs. 96-129). Itasca, Ill. F.E. Peacock. Engler, Barbara. (2006). Personality theories. (7th Edition). Boston, MA. Houghton, Mifflin Company. Feist, J. (1985). Theories of personality. New York, NY. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Nystul, Michael (2006). Introduction to counseling, an art and science perspective (3rd Edition). Boston, MA. Pearson, Allyn, & Bacon. Strogatz, Steven, H. (2004). SYNC: How order emerges from chaos in the universe, nature, and daily life. New York, NY. Hyperion. NOTE FROM AUTHOR: The only comments from my professor were about APA formatting, like margins, and double spacing the bibliography. No points were lost for this.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Legacy of JP Morgan Essay example - 3014 Words

In 1871, the banking house of Drexel, Morgan Co. was established by John Pierpont Morgan. Twenty four years later it was renamed J.P. Morgan Co., which it was to remain until the firms purchase by Chase Manhattan in 2000. (Hughes 23) At this point, Chase Manhattan was the largest banking company in the United States. This was a far cry from the 1980s when Morgan boasted the largest market capitalization of any American bank and was more expensive to buy than Citicorp. (Hughes 11) While J.P. Morgan could not imagine the path banking would take in the U.S. with his passing in 1913; his banking house would have a strong hold on American banking for much of the 20th century. The introduction of bank holding companies and certain laws†¦show more content†¦Thus, from an early age, Pierponts life was scripted for a promising future in banking and business. Although Pierpont did follow the path laid before him, this was not the case for the majority of those born into the same c ircumstances. Pierponts generation of wealthy heirs often chose the easy life by simply living off the amassed fortunes of earlier generations. Others, such as the robber barons, accumulated wealth not through inheritance, but by working from the bottom to the top during the Gilded Age (Strouse, 129). Two men fitting a category of rags to riches, and of whom were also connected to Pierpont through business, were Andrew Carnegie and Thomas Alva Edison. In 1869, Junius Morgan became acquainted with Carnegie under the construction and financing of a steel railroad bridge across the Mississippi River. The bridge finally opened in 1874 as the St. Louis Bridge, but due to an ongoing mild depression in the economy, sparse rail traffic used the continental highway. The Morgans did not waiver in their support for Carnegie, but instead financed future bridges and rail systems as well. With a solid business relationship in tact, Pierpont and Carnegie collaborated again in 1901 to form the worlds largest corporation, U.S. Steel (Chambers, 44). Originally called the Carnegie Company, PierpontShow MoreRelatedProcter Gamble s Impact On The World1602 Words   |  7 Pagescoined it, individuals lost millions, companies lost billions and stock prices had essentially bottomed. According to the Financial Times, â€Å"†¦Procter Gamble s share price fell 37 percent at one point† (Legacy, 2013) and â€Å"shares in management consult ancy firm Accenture†¦dropped from $40 to 1 CENT† (Legacy, 2013). For these things to have happened, it is pretty obvious that something superhuman was at work. In this case, it was actually supercomputers. There is a method of stock trading known as AlgorithmicRead MoreThe most controversial case of fraud in history left more questions than answers. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Salem Witch Trials Questionable And Scandalous Time

The Salem Witch Trials were a questionable and scandalous time in New England history that led to the deaths of 14 women and 6 men, all of whom had been charged with practicing witchcraft. The trials were the result of the strange and unexplainable behavior of two young girls, who exhibited violent convulsions and uncontrollable outburst of screaming and fits that left them unable to see,speak or hear. After a local doctor examined them and found no physical reason for their fits, diagnosed them as bewitched. This diagnosis sent salem into hysteria and in the summer of 1692, nearly 200 people were accused and arrested for practicing witchcraft. In January of 1692, Betty Parris, age nine, and Abigail Williams, age eleven, the daughter and niece of Reverend Samuel Parris, began having what was recorded as fits. The girls threw things around the room, uttered strange sounds and contorted their bodies. They also started covering their ears during sermons. After their diagnosis, other you ng girls in the village began exhibiting the same symptoms. In February, scared by events, the villagers held fasts and prayed for the afflicted. Wanting the influence of witchcraft out of the village, the girls were pressured into providing names of whomever had bewitched them. Three women were named, Sarah Good, Sarah Osburne and an old slave named Tituba. It was easy to believe that the three women were guilty due to them being unpopular within the village. Sarah Good was a beggar and had

Friday, December 20, 2019

Bullying And Its Effect On Students s Physical And...

Bullying in schools is one of the most common social issues associated with education in the United States. This issue has no particular specification for who is a target, no limit on how it is rendered and it can have an effect on student’s physical and emotional safety at school. In addition to physical and emotional upset, bullying can also negatively impact the student’s ability to focus on, understand and retain the information being taught in classes. As research shows approximately 28%, roughly 1 in every 3 students 12-18 years of age reported being bullied at school according to a 2013 report by Indicators of school crime and safety. The majority of bulling is done at school as opposed other social settings. An issue which is particularly alarming considering that across 39 states surveyed, 7.2% of students bullied admit to not going to school due to personal safety and bullying concerns. The effects of bullying can continue many years into adulthood. In the mos t extreme cases, targets of bullying retaliated through school shootings and most commonly by committing suicide. In previous generations bullying was viewed as a rite of passage or a normal childhood behavior which was regarded as a harmless character builder for the children involved; however children who classify as a bully as well as the children who are bullied have lasting social and psychological affects long after adolescence or the end of bullying. While bullying has no distinguished set of reasonsShow MoreRelatedCyberbullying: The New Form Of Bullying. When Sending Our1661 Words   |  7 PagesCyberbullying: The New Form of Bullying When sending our children to school we expect them to be able to learn without distractions, but bullying makes that impossible. Bullying has been recognized as a problem for school children globally. In fact, school bullying has proven to be a risk factor for suicide, which has been identified as one of the top causes of death among teens (Erick Messias, 2014). Now that bullying and its importance has been acknowledged as a critical concern, several preventionRead MoreBullying And Suicide : A Public Health Approach1025 Words   |  5 Pagesabout bullying and the alarming effects it has on our society. Bullying is defined by the Center for Disease and Control (CDC) as â€Å"any unwanted aggressive behavior(s) by another youth or group of youths who are not siblings or current dating partners that involves an observed or perceived power imbalance and is repeated multiple times or is highly likely to be repeated.† (â€Å"Featured Topic: Bullying Research† ) There are ma ny forms of bullying, including but not limited to physical bullying, verbalRead MoreBullying And Its Effect On Teenagers830 Words   |  4 PagesBullying is the use of a superior strength or influence to intimidate someone, typically to force the individual to do what one wants. Bullying is a behavior that intentionally hurts someone physically or emotionally acted by an individual or group. Bullying can take many forms and is often motivated by prejudice against a particular group; for example, on the grounds of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or any physical or mental disability. Stopping violence and ensuring safety is obviouslyRead MoreBullying in School: Counselors’ Strategies for Prevention Essay1373 Words   |  6 PagesBullying is defined as â€Å"verbal, physical, or psychological abuse or teasing accompanied by real or perceived imbalance of power† and is usually targets what children perceive as different (Olweus, 1993). Bullying is prevalent across the nation. It has devastating effects on students each day. Bullying is a problem for all students, regardless of race, gender or class. The National Education Association reports that 160,000 children are absent intentionally from school each day because they fear beingRead MoreThe Causes And Effects Of Bullying1369 Words   |  6 PagesThe Causes and Effects of Bullying Bullying is defined as unwanted or aggressive behavior that causes someone to feel afraid or intimidated. This behavior could be something physical, verbal or something done electronically or through social media. If someone feels threatened by someone’s actions or words, it could be considered bullying, even if that was not the intent. In my Senior project paper, I will discuss the types of bullying, how to recognize bullying, how to report bullying, what to doRead MoreBullying Is Becoming More Spread At An Alarming And Dangerous Rate Essay1193 Words   |  5 Pages General Purpose:Bullying in schools is becoming more spread at an alarming and dangerous rate. Specific Purpose:School systems that are commonly viewed as excellent sources of receiving an education are becoming a host of parasitic bullying, negatively affecting students learning environments. Central Idea: The presence of bullying is growing. It has reached a point that as it is becoming worse in school systems and is affecting students of all ages. This calls for a need of intervention or theRead MoreBullying : A Serious Social Problem886 Words   |  4 Pagesnormal aspect of growing up, bullying in schools is increasingly being recognized as a serious social problem that should be met with organized preventative efforts to downsize it. Bullying commonly deals with three aspects such as the nature of its occurrence, the frequency it takes place, and the effects it can have on a person. While each instance is different for each person, one constant is that this is a uncomfortable situation for anyone to deal with. Bullying can be described as a negativeRead MoreLGBT Community and Discrimination.1291 Words   |  6 PagesWade Adams- A teenaged boy who identifies as a girl, calling himself â€Å"Unique†, as well as Blaine Anderson who is in a relationship with Kur t Hummel, whom both are gay. Kurt Hummel was bullied in the past for his sexuality and Glee’s message of LGBT bullying is both hurtful and wrong. A movie that won critical acclaim is Blue Is the Warmest Color for the portrayal of a lesbian relationship between the two main characters Adà ¨le and Emma. Which, most agreed was an accurate and realistic picture of a lesbianRead MoreBullying in School1085 Words   |  5 Pagesgrowing up all the school change a lot though the years over time. The school is supposed to be a safe place and secure environment. There is an increase concern about recognizing, interviewing, to preventing bully within the school. What are we suppose to do about Bullying? To recognizing bullying is to identify type of bullying. First improve the lives strategies and intervolves both parties the victim and the bully. There are many challenge for barriers by involves school programs! A smallRead MoreAnalysis Of Sherman Alexie s The Absolutely True Diary Of A Part Time Indian 1576 Words   |  7 PagesMay 2017 The Advancement of Bullying Within Society Bullying refers to the intentional tormenting in physical, verbal, or psychological ways. Sherman Alexie s The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian raises awareness about this common social issue, bullying, through his story about a boy growing up on an impoverished Native American reservation. The novel shows how bullying can leave deep emotional scars that last a lifetime. It s important to take bullying seriously and not just brush

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman free essay sample

This paper compares and contrasts two poems composed by Dickinson and Whitman. The writer compares the work of Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson to draw similarities as well as differences in the styles, the tones and the themes of the poems. The paper shows how the poems have similarities in rhythm, pattern and theme, and yet they differ in delivery and context. Each is about pain and loneliness while they diverge in whether that loneliness causes anger or sadness for the narrator. Walt Whitman was known for his ability to put prose into action and make the reader feel that they too share the narrators body, mind and soul. His words whisper across a page and enter the depth of the readers heart before the brain even realizes what the words have actually said. One of his most well loved works was Crossing Brooklyn Ferry in which the reader is given a peek into the soul and depth of pain that Whitman suffered through while he reflected and analyzed his own life. We will write a custom essay sample on Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was well known that many of his works were autobiographical in nature and this poem was another example of the things he lived and felt as he graced the world with his talent. Emily Dickinson was also known for her ability to spell out pain and emotion in the form of a poem. Her loneliness and depression are commonly accepted facts at this point in history but the way she displayed them gave the world classic words of pride to enjoy for all time. Her work often reflected the same type of deep and inner longing for connections to the world that Whitman wrote in his works.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Juveniles and Adult Incarceration free essay sample

A look at the complexities of juvenile sentencing. This is a persuasive research paper that suggests that juveniles should not be tried as adults. The author argues that adult sentencing for juveniles will fail to minimize the increasing number of juvenile criminals and may even inhibit rehabilitation. The author stresses the importance of dealing with these criminals according to their age and to approach the issues that cause them to become involved in crime instead of simply punishing them. As more and more adolescents are committing heinous crimes that were in the past restricted to adults, the society is demanding that these criminals be put behind bars and tried as adultsnot as juveniles as they were in the past. The argument is, if the adolescents commit adult crimes then they must be prepared to be punished like adults as well. This is raising cause for a debate that is not as simple as it seems. We will write a custom essay sample on Juveniles and Adult Incarceration or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In 1996, for every 100,000 teenagers, 465 were arrested for violent crime, compared with 318 arrests per 100,000 adults. And the Justice Department reports that if current trends continue, the number of juveniles arrested for violent crimes will more than double by the year 2010. But the question is whether the threat of adult courts and adult jails will deter the would-be youth criminal. (Rambler, 1997).

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Compromising of Integrity, Morality, and Principles in Exchange for Money Tour free essay sample

One of the most exhilarating moments of attending a concert may in fact be the anticipation of the doors opening. This was most certainly the case for show-goers Friday Nov. 28- Starland Ballroom, in Sayreville NJ. In the blink of an eye an already enormous line extended itself throughout a half-mile of an overly capacitated parking lot, where teens anxiously had been gathering six hours prior to the show’s commencement. The venue was featuring a recently signed band, The Friday Night Boys; Every Avenue; The Maine; Mayday Parade; and the headliner All Time Low. The indie-rock bands comprised of members as young as 18 were on the second to last show of two- month long â€Å"The Compromising of Integrity, Morality, and Principles in Exchange for Money Tour.† Coming from hometowns of VA, MI, AZ, FL, and MD, the bands had been driving cross country carrying with them the talent and inspiration teens internationally adore in tour buses (in The Maine’s case, a 15 passenger van adorned with signatures and phone numbers of girls who all claimed themselves to be the group’s biggest fans). We will write a custom essay sample on The Compromising of Integrity, Morality, and Principles in Exchange for Money Tour or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A night filled with youthful passion and excitement began at 7 pm when The Friday Night Boys took their very first steps on stage. The lights grew dark as the screaming intensified. Playing songs off their EP- â€Å"Chasing A Rock Star†, â€Å"That’s What She Said†, and â€Å"Celebrity Life†- this power-pop band set the enthusiasm for the rest of what would be an unforgettable rhapsodic night. The jam-packed Starland Ballroom was inundated with teens screaming their hearts out awaiting Every Avenue’s performance. Just minutes after The Friday Night Boys left the stage, the lights yet again dimmed and Every Avenue’s hit song â€Å"Where Were You?† was being sung not only by lead vocalist, Dave Strauchman, but by the entire crowd. In between songs, â€Å"Think of You Later†, â€Å"Days of The Old†, â€Å"A Story to Tell Your Friends†, and â€Å"This One’s a Cheap Shot†, guitarist Josh Withenshaw and Strauchman chatted with the lively crowd further pursuing their fans zeal for the next performance who would be the young ambitious five member band from Phoenix, Arizona, The Maine. The night had really only just begun but heavy hearts were already being palliated as the ever-so anticipated boys of The Maine set foot on stage. With his back to the crowd, the lights completely down, heartthrob John O’Callaghan held the microphone to his lips and sang with emotion felt by teens and adults alike. Fans practically throwing themselves at the stage, hoping to make any contact with the boys, recited the lyrics to â€Å"Girls Do What They Want† with such confidence and amplitude that it became difficult to hear John â€Å"Ohhh’s† voice. The group’s stage presence was without a doubt unparalleled by any other. With teens being carried atop the crowd, and the flooding of the stage in an exceedingly tight area, O’Callaghan made sure to tell the crowd to pick up anyone that had fallen on the ground- adding that â€Å"stuff like that makes me nervous.† Often taking breaks between songs â€Å"We All Roll Along†, â€Å" The Way We Talk†, â€Å"Count em’ One Two Three†, John Ohhh spoke directly to the adolescent soul, encouraging them to â€Å"get crazy in here!† Not wanting to disappoint the boys, the crowd was left with no choice but to get off their feet and enjoy a night that would forever be a part of them. The night further intensified with Tallahassee’s Mayday Parade, a group with a unique sense of flair. Drummer Jake Bundrick’s essence was up-tempo and bright with every beat. As usual guitarists Brooks Betts and Alex Garcia’s performance was addicting with every chord. The five member band’s play list for the night included songs â€Å"Black Cat†, â€Å"Miserable At Best†, â€Å"Jamie All Over†, â€Å"Three Cheers For Five Years† and â€Å"When I Get Home You’re So Dead†, a motley flavor of boisterous indie Rock. With Mayday’s final steps off stage, the crowd only grew more tonic- demanding All Time Low’s presence. The screaming was surely deafening but elevating nonetheless. Hearts were beating at rapid paces, hands ardently waved in the air, and a feeling of adolescent temerity encompassed the venue. From the ceiling fluttered confetti and from the stage shone the members of All Time Low, their slap-in-the-face lyrics and an emotionally charged aura. Guitarist Jack Barakat, bassist Zack Merrick, and lead vocalist Alex Gaskarth were intimate with the crowd, tossing to them water bottles, guitar picks, and lyrics that spoke directly to each and every teen enthralled in a vicariously thrilling night. Every word was recited by every fan as Gaskarth competed with the volume of the crowd during the band’s â€Å"Dear Maria, Count Me In.† Their performance was fearless, fervent, and of course exceptional. The show came to an end with Gaskarth’s words of wisdom: à ¢â‚¬Å"Live like it’s a party and ROCK ON!† Nights like this sometimes come once in a lifetime, but the memory lasts indefinitely. Emotions could be felt even as ecstatic fans left the venue. For some lucky teens the night wouldn’t truly be over until pictures, laughs, and conversations were exchanged with the amiable down to earth boys from The Maine who expectedly came out to greet their fans. The night was pervaded with a sense of youthful invincibility, freedom, and soul. A long awaited night that would forever remain close to teen hearts would eventually turn into an indelible memory.